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Financial Structure

File photo: Financial Structure
File photo: Financial Structure File photo: Financial Structure

What Exactly Is Financial Structure?

A company’s financial structure is the combination of debt and equity used to finance its operations. This mix impacts corporate risk and value. Business financial managers choose the appropriate debt-equity combination to optimize the economic structure.

Financial structure is sometimes called capital structure. Evaluating the economic structure may also involve choosing between private and public businesses and their capital options.

Financial Structure Knowledge

Companies can organize their businesses in several ways. Companies can be public or private. The basis for managing capital structures remains the same, although financing choices vary substantially.

Business finances are based on debt and equity.

Credit investors lend money, which is repaid with interest. For their investment, shareholders receive stock in the firm and a return on their equity through market value gains, or dividends. The debt-equity balance of any organization depends on its demands, expenditures, and investor demand.

Private vs. public

The organization of private and public corporations is similar, yet there are some distinctions. Both business types can issue equity. Private equity is developed and marketed exclusively to chosen investors on a stock exchange. The equity fundraising procedure differs from an IPO. Private firms can also undergo many equity fundraising rounds, affecting their market worth. Companies that mature and issue public market shares rely on investment banks for pre-marketing and first-share valuation. After an IPO, all shareholders become public shareholders, and the company’s market valuation is based on shares outstanding multiplied by the market price.

Private debt is mainly supplied to select investors, like credit market debt. Rating agencies track public firms more carefully, classifying debt assets for investors and the market. Debt trumps equity for private and public firms. Even though this lowers debt risks, private market enterprises typically pay higher interest rates since their operations and cash flows are less established, increasing risk.

Debt vs. Equity

Financial managers might pick debt or equity for a company’s economic structure. Investor demand for both capital classes may significantly impact a company’s finances. Financial management is to finance the firm at the lowest rate feasible to reduce capital liabilities and increase capital investment.

The financial management’s evaluation of the capital structure helps to bring the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) down. The weighted average price of capital (WACC) calculates the company’s average payout percentage to investors for all of its capital. The WACC derives this percentage. Using a weighted average of the company’s payout rates for its debt and equity capital simplifies calculating WACC.

Financial Structure Analysis Metrics

The critical financial structure criteria for private and public enterprises are similar. The Securities and Exchange Commission requires public filings by public corporations, which helps investors analyze the economic structure. The assessment of financial statement reporting in private firms is sometimes challenging due to its restricted focus on investors.

Capital structure metrics are often calculated using balance sheet data. Debt to total capital is a crucial financial structure statistic. It shows how much of the company’s capital is debt and equity. A company’s debt may be all or part of its liabilities. Equity is in shareholders’ equity on the balance sheet. A corporation relies more on debt, the greater its debt-to-capital ratio.

Also used to determine the capital structure is debt-to-equity. This ratio will be higher for companies with more outstanding debt, and vice versa.


  • The corporate financial structure combines debt and equity used to fund operations, called the capital structure.
  • Private and public firms construct their financial structures using the same foundation, although there are distinctions.
  • Financial managers manage debt-equity mixes using the weighted average cost of capital.
  • The debt-to-capital and debt-to-equity ratios often represent the capital structure of a corporation.

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